Types Of Personality In Psychology
The Greek doctors Hippocrates and Galen were the first to attempt to classify personality types in psychology. Based on the proportions in the human body of four fluids, they identified four types of temperament.
Personality types: choleric, sanguine, phlegmatic, melancholic
- Sanguine people were considered to have a lot of blood. Their disposition was joyful, optimistic, easily excitable.
- Choleric were people who had yellow bile more than normal. In their character, the main features were incontinence, irritability.
- Melancholy was taken by people with a lot of black bile. They were depressed, prone to depression, sadness.
- Phlegmatic people have become an excess of mucus. They were distinguished by calm, apathy, lack of energy.
The character was also determined by the facial expression of a person.
In the 40s of the twentieth century, after years of observation, the American psychologist W. Sheldon proposed a different version of this theory. He suggested that there are three types of personality based on physique :
- Ectomorphs – thin, shy, graceful, brooding;
- Mesomorphs are muscular, mobile, sometimes reckless;
- Endomorphs are large, good-natured, calm.
Along with science, they try to reveal a person’s personality with the help of astrology (by birth time), palmistry (along the lines on the hands), phrenology (along with the tubercles and cones on the skull). But science does not take them seriously. PS And rightly so.
Extroverts and Introverts – Feature
Swiss psychologist Carl Jung became the creator of a completely different theory of personality types. Karl focused on the inner world of man and where he is turned.
A closed man who holds everything in himself was considered an introvert, and an open, cheerful person who loves to be in the center of attention is considered an extrovert.
Take an extraversion/introversion test and type of temperament.
Modern psychology believes that personality is complex and diverse, that it is much more difficult to classify it than in the theories of Hippocrates, Galen, Sheldon, and Jung. After all, the same person, in different situations, can manifest himself in different ways.
Psychoanalysis of personality
Sigmund Freud became the author of the first theory of psychoanalysis. He believed that all traits of character and personality arise in a person in the first five years of life and in the future form the behavior of a person in adulthood. In the modern interpretation of this theory, much attention is paid to the relationship of children with adults and with each other, their adaptation in culture and society.
Such tests provide a more accurate assessment of a person’s character, can predict his behavior in various situations, and help to find out the level of intelligence.
Take psychological tests for personality types on our website.
There are simple tests, the answers to which may be the words “Yes” or “No”. There is more difficult, for example, to invent a story or continue a sentence. They help to learn about the tendencies and aspirations of the test.
The Rorschach test is quite famous and popular in practice. In it, a person needs to look at the blots to tell what they remind him of. Different people see different things in the same blot – this helps to learn about the various character traits and the psychological state of the subject.
Many personality tests confirm that it is impossible to break up billions of people into several types, that human nature is unique and multifaceted. Therefore, many scientists put forward various theories that very often contradict each other. But with every step of work in this direction, psychology is improving and brings humanity closer to the truth.